Cardiovascular Diseases: Types, Health Risk facts, Prevention & More

Cardiovascular Diseases: Types, Risk facts, Prevention & More

India is a nation with a very young population. So, it is of utmost importance that our country’s youth, especially those between 25 to 55, focus on cardiovascular health.

The diseases involving the heart and its blood vessels are called cardiovascular diseases.

Types of Cardiovascular diseases:

The form or function of the heart is affected by cardiovascular diseases. The cardiovascular diseases list is as follows:

  •  Coronary artery disease. It is also commonly known as CAD. The plaque build-up is present, and this leads to the hardening of blood vessels.
  • Atypical heart rhythms, or arrhythmias
  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
  • Heart attack – Blood flow is blocked, cutting off oxygen to the heart.
  • Heart failure caused by the failure of the heart to supply adequate blood to the tissues to meet their metabolic needs
  • Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) – The heart is abnormally thickened and enlarged.
  • Heart valve disease
  • Peripheral vascular is the disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs.
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Vascular disease (blood vessel disease)

Risk factors for heart diseases:

  • Age

Age is a significant risk factor in heart disease development. The risk of cardiovascular/heart diseases increases with your age.

Ageing is also related to variations in the vascular wall’s structural and mechanical properties, which causes the loss of arterial pliability leading to coronary artery disease.

  • Gender

Women are at a lesser risk of heart disease than men due to the estrogen hormone’s cardio-protective nature. As soon as menopause sets in, the risk is almost comparable to a man’s.

  • Physical inactivity

Globally, insufficient physical activity is a principal risk factor for the deterioration of cardiovascular health. Physical activity contributes to weight loss and improves blood sugar levels and blood pressure.

  • Smoking

Cigarettes are the dominant form of smoked tobacco. Risks to cardiovascular health are not only from direct tobacco consumption but also due to passive smoking.

  • Diet

Regular eating of high-energy foods, such as processed foods high in fats and sugars, leads to obesity, affecting cardiovascular health. The quantity of dietary salt used may also be a significant causal factor to high blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular health.

  • Alcohol

Drinking high levels of alcohol has a negative impact on cardiovascular health.

  • Celiac disease

Untreated celiac disease can cause irreversible heart damage. It usually resolves with a gluten-free diet. 

  • Socioeconomic disadvantage

Cardiovascular health is deficient in the low- and middle-income countries even further than in high-income countries.

  • Sleep

Insomnia has been related to a complex cardiometabolic risk.

  • Air pollution

PM2.5 is linked to thickening of the carotid artery and a higher risk of acute myocardial infarction.

Assessment of Heart Health (Cardiovascular risk)

Like a heart attack or stroke, present cardiovascular disease or a previous cardiovascular event is the robust predictor of any future cardiovascular incident.

Age, smoking, gender, blood pressure, blood lipids, and diabetes are significant predictors of cardiovascular health. Therefore, a heart health checkup should be done at least once a year.

You should visit your doctor for routine cardiovascular health checkup tests to detect cardiovascular disease in the early stages.

Prevention of cardiovascular diseases

About 90% of cardiovascular disease can be avoided if the following measures are practised:

  • Lesser intake of saturated fast: By replacing a portion of saturated fat with unsaturated fats or carbohydrates for at least two years, enhances heart health.
  • Discontinuing smoking and avoiding second-hand smoke.
  • Maintain a healthy diet (DASH or Mediterranean diet). 
  • Do at least 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate exercise in a week.
  • Consume alcohol within the recommended daily limits.
  • Lower elevated blood pressure.
  • Reduction of non-HDL cholesterol levels.
  • Lose body fat if overweight or obese.
  • Cut down your stress levels.

More about cardiovascular health


Medication for controlling the Blood Pressure decreases cardiovascular disease in individuals at risk.

To prevent further disease in people with a history of cardiovascular disease, Statins are helpful.

Anti-diabetic medication may decrease cardiovascular risk in people with Diabetes mellitus.

Dietary supplements

Niacin, a type of vitamin B3, may modestly cut in the danger of cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals.

Magnesium supplementation brings a drop in high blood pressure if used in a dose-dependent method.

Cardiovascular Disease Treatments

Treating cardiovascular diseases can vary by the sort of condition.

  • Altering your lifestyles such as your diet, physical activity, tobacco, and alcohol consumption.
  • Medicines, such as the ones that treat blood clots, cholesterol, or blood pressure.
  • Surgical interventions include having a balloon or stent positioned in your blood vessel, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or heart valve surgery.

Covid 19 and Heart Health

There is collective evidence of straight involvement of the heart in about one-fifth of patients affected by COVID-19. It is necessary to follow infection avoidance guidelines stringently.


The key to good overall health is to have sound cardiovascular/ heart health. It is imperative to visit your specialist and undergo heart checkups regularly.