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Lung cancer originates from the tissues of the lung, typically in the cells lining the
passages. The two main types of lung cancer are: small-cell lung cancer and non-small
lung cancer. They are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope.
cell lung cancer is more common and includes squamous cell carcinoma, adeno
large cell carcinoma. Small cell lung cancer is rarer but tends to be
difficult to find until it has already spread (especially to the brain).
People who smoke are at
greater risk of
developing lung cancer than people who do not. The risk of lung cancer increases with
length of time and number of cigarettes you have smoked. If you quit smoking, even after
smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung
Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur when the disease is in an advanced
It is the most common cancer In India and is the leading cause of cancer-related
Lung cancer typically doesn’t cause obvious symptoms in the earlier stages, making early
detection difficult without screening tests.
Non-small cell lung cancer has 4 stages.
Stage 1: Cancer is detected in the lung, but it has not spread outside the
Stage 2: Cancer is detected in the lung and has spread to nearby lymph
Stage 3: Cancer is detected in the lung and lymph nodes in the middle of the
Stage 4: Cancer has spread to other lungs and into the area surrounding the
lungs, or to distant organs.
Small-cell lung cancer
has two main stages, the limited stage and the extensive stage. In the limited stage,
is found in only one lung or nearby lymph nodes on the same side, while cancer in the
extensive stage means it has spread throughout one lung, to the opposite lung or to
Currently, a CT scan (computerized tomography scan) is the only way of detecting
lung cancer. A CT scan uses many sequential X-ray images taken from various angles
your body and processes it to create detailed cross-sectional images (slices) of the
Emphysema-Type Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease that obstructs airflow from the lungs. Its symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing.
Existing lung conditions such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common contributors to COPD. Emphysema involves damages to the lungs over time. The alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs, are damaged because of cigarette smoke or other irritating gases and particulate matter. Chronic bronchitis involves a long-term cough with mucus.
COPD symptoms often don't appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time, particularly if smoking exposure continues.
India has the highest number of COPD cases and related deaths in the world. After heart diseases, it is the second most common cause of death in the country. People affected with COPD are at an increased risk for developing heart disease, lung cancer and a variety of other conditions. However, it is preventable if found early. With proper management, most people are able to control its symptoms, as well as reduce risk of other associated conditions.
Screening helps find out post COVID lung diseases.
Laryngeal cancer staging is complicated because it depends on if cancer started in the
supraglottis, glottis or subglottis. Each have specific descriptions.
Stage 0 or carcinoma in situ: Cancer is limited to the top layer of cells lining
the larynx and have not spread elsewhere.
Stage 1: Depending on where the cancer is found Supraglottis - Cancer is limited
to one area of the supraglottis only and has not affected the vocal cords
Glottis - Cancer is within one or two vocal cords
Subglottis - Cancer is in the subglottis only.
Stage 2: Differs based on where it originated, but the cancer is still within the
larynx Supraglottis - Cancer has spread to more than one area of the
supraglottis and nearby tissues
Glottis - Cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis. It may have also
affected the vocal cords
Subglottis - Cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords
Stage 3: There are multiple descriptions for this stage, depending on where
cancer has begun. Broadly, the cancer may still be contained within the larynx and has
affected the vocal cords. It might have also spread to nearby tissues and/or nearby
Stage 4: Cancer has spread to nearby or distant organs.
There is evidence that suggests that COPD is under diagnosed in India, partly because diagnosis is based on symptoms (for which people are often late in seeking help)
A CT Scan can identify LAA% (Low Attenuation Area) as COPD identification with the Goddard score which is a global standard system.